Friday, September 26, 2014

Numeric Water Level Indicator

Most water-level indicators for water tanks are based upon the number of LEDs that glow to indicate the corresponding level of water in the container. Here we present a digital version of the water-level indicator. It uses a 7-segment display to show the water level in numeric form from0 to 9. The circuit works off 5V regulated power supply. It is built around priority encoder IC 74HC147 (IC1), BCD-to-7-segment decoder IC CD4511 (IC2), 7-segment display LTS543 (DIS1) and a few discrete components. Due to high input impedance, IC1 senses water in the container from its nine input terminals. The inputs are connected to +5V via 560-kilo-ohm resistors.

The ground terminal of the sensor must be kept at the bottom of the container (tank). IC 74HC147 has nine active-low inputs and converts the active input into active-low BCD output. The input L-9 has the highest priority. The outputs of IC1 (A, B, C and D) are fed to IC2 via transistors T1 through T4. This logic inverter is used to convert the active-low output of IC1 into active-high for IC2. The BCD code received by IC2 is shown on 7-segment display LTS543. Resistors R18 through R24 limit the current through the display.

image Numeric Water-Level Indicator circuit diagram
When the tank is empty, all the inputs of IC1 remain high. As a result, its output also remains high, making all the inputs of IC2 low. Display LTS543 at this stage shows 0, which means the tank is empty. Similarly, when the water level reaches L-1 position, the display shows 1, and when the water level reaches L-8 position, the display shows 8. Finally, when the tank is full, all the inputs of IC1 become low and its output goes low to make all the inputs of IC2 high. Display LTS543 now shows 9, which means the tank is full. Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a box. Mount 7-segment LTS543 on the front panel of the box. For sensors L-1 though L-9 and ground, use corrosion-free conductive-metal (stainless-steel) strips.
Copyright: EFY Mag
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Using Serial Port PC Battery Charger Circuit Diagram

This is one of the porters of the series "battery chargers that will never do." It uses the serial port of a PC to power a battery charger. A serial interface port can not supply enough current to charge batteries more powerful, but low capacity battery Nickel Cadmium (NiCd), this circuit is more than enough.You could, for example, use the batteries in a radio and charge them while using the PC. 

The three serial port connections TxD, DTR and RTS, when not in use, are -10 V and can provide a current of about 10 to 20 mA. The circuit shown supplies a charging current of about 30 mA. If you need to change the polarity of the charging circuit, then it is a simple job, just reverse the diodes and use of software, change door signs to 10 V. Those interested can also write a software routine that automatically recharges the batteries.

Serial Port PC Battery Charger Circuit Diagram

Serial Port PC Battery Charger Circuit Diagram

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Tweeter Used to Sense Vibrations

The creator built a neat looking project which uses a piezoelectric element from a tweeter to detect vibrations. He is using a Zilog eZ8 series microcontroller which seemed to be very popular years ago.

Tweeter Used to Sense Vibrations
This project dependently using a strong vibration while the enclosure has been placed on the top of vibration sensor. The LED matrix has two eyes the wandering around effects. Whenever there is no vibration being detected the eyes will shut down as if they were sleeping.

Tweeter Used in Sensing Vibrations
A button was placed behind to manually switch it into various modes. It uses a four AA batteries and can draw 150uA when asleep while it draws for about 150mA when up.


Source : extreamcircuit
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Simple 2 Watt Small Switching Power Supply Circuit Diagram

In this small switching power supply, a Schmitt trigger oscillator is used to drive a switching transistor that supplies current to a small inductor. Energy is stored in the inductor while the transistor is on, and released into the load circuit when the transistor switches off.

2 Watt Small Switching Power Supply Circuit Diagram

Simple 2 Watt Small Switching Power Supply Circuit Diagram

The output voltage is dependent on the load resistance and is limited by a zener diode that stops the oscillator when the voltage reaches about 14 volts. Higher or lower voltages can be obtained by adjusting the voltage divider that feeds the zener diode. The efficiency is about 80% using a high Q inductor.
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Simple Automatic Switch For Audio Power Amplifier

Simple Automatic Switch For Audio Power Amplifier.Circuit of an automatic switch for audio power amplifier stage is presented here. The circuit uses stereo preamplifier output to detect the presence of audio to switch the audio power amplifier on only when audio is present. The circuit thus helps curtail power wastage. IC1 is used as an inverting adder. The input signals from left and right channels are combined to form a common signal for IC2, which is used as an open loop comparator. IC3 (NE556) is a dual timer. Its second section, i.e., IC3(b), is configured as monostable multivibrator. Output of IC3(b) is used to switch the power amplifier on or off through a Darlington pair formed by transistors T1 and T2. IC3(a) is used to trigger the monostable multivibrator whenever an input signal is sensed.
Circuit diagram:
Automatic Switch For Audio Power Amplifier-Circuit-Diagram
Automatic Switch For Audio Power Amplifier Circuit Diagram

Under ‘no signal’ condition, pin 3 of IC2 is negative with respect to its pin 2. Hence the output of IC2 is low and as a result output of IC3(a) is high. Since there is no trigger at pin 8 of IC3(b), the output of IC3(b) will be low and the amplifier will be off. When an input singal is applied to IC1, IC2 converts the inverted sum of the input signals into a rectangular waveform by comparing it with a constant voltage which can be controlled by varying potentiometer VR1. When the output of IC2 is high, output pin 5 of IC3 goes low, thus triggering the monostable multivibrator. As soon as the audio input to IC1 stops, pin 5 of IC3 goes high and pin 1 of IC3 discharges through capacitor C3, thus resetting the monostable multivibrator. 

Hence, as long as input signals are applied, the amplifier remains ‘on.’ When the input signals are removed, i.e., when signal level is zero, the amplifier switches off after the mono flip-flop delay period determined by the values of resistor R8 and capacitor C3. If no input signals are sensed within this time, the amplifier turns off—else it remains on. Power supply for the circuit can be obtained from the power supply of the amplifier. Hence, the circuit can be permanently fitted in the amplifier box itself. The main switch of the amplifier should be always kept on. Resistors R1 and R2 are used to divide single voltage supply into two equal parts.

Capacitors C1 and C2 are used as regulators and also as an AC bypass for input signals. Diode D1 is used so that loading fluctuations in power amplifier do not affect circuit regulation. Transisitor T2 acts as a high voltage switch which may be replaced by any other high voltage switching transistor satisfying amplifier current requirements. Value of resistor R10 should be modified for large current requirement. The LED glows when the amplifier is on. The circuit is very useful and relieves one from putting the amplifier on and off every time one plays a cassette or radio etc. 
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How to connect LCD Display on the Arduino using only 2 pins

Generally for connecting an LCD display to an Arduino using 7 strands, it usually breaks the leg that has any projects that remain few ports to be used. But there is a way, using an IC 74LS164 (8-bit serial shift register), a resistor and a diode, but its not just hardware, you have to use a library.

This Arduino library for connection of 2-wire or 3-wire using HD44780 compatible LCD display via shiftregisters. This circuit is considered "deprecated", but its worth testing.

LCD Display on the Arduino Circuit 

LCD Display on the Arduino

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LM35 Temperature Sensor Circuit Diagram

The LM35 temperature sensor provides an output of 10 mV/C for every degree Celsius over 0C. At 20C the output voltage is 20 10 = 200 mV. The circuit consumes 00.

LM35 Temperature Sensor Circuit Diagram

LM35 Temperature Sensor Circuit Diagram

The load resistance should not be less than 5 kQ. A 4- to 20-V supply can be used.

Sourced by Ecircuitslab
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Battery Equal Charge Indicator Circuit Diagram

The circuit below illuminates an LED to indicate unequal charges between two 12 volt lead batteries. It can be used to verify that two batteries are connected in parallel or isolated since the LED will be off when the voltages are equal within a tollerance, or on if the voltage difference is greater than 100 millivolts. Three comparators and three voltage dividers are used to determine battery conditions.

Battery Equal Charge Indicator Circuit Diagram

Battery Projects

The upper left comparator (+) input at pin 5 is set to about 10 volts with battery #1 at 12 volts. The negative input (pin 4) is set to a slightly lower voltage by adding an additional 240 ohms to the voltage divider so that the output of the comparator will be positive when both battery voltages are equal and negative if battery 2 rises above battery 1 by 100 millivolts or more.

The voltage at pin 5 is used as a reference for the lower comparator and the negative input of the lower comparator is set to a lower voltage with the addition of 510 ohms, so that the output will also be positive when the battery voltages are equal and negative when battery #1 is greater than #2 by 100 millivolts or more.

The two comparator outputs are both connected to the positive input of the third comparator at pin 9 so that the LED will illuminate when either condition exists,
(Battery #1 > Battery #2) OR (Battery #2 > Battery #1). Link
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Hybrid Headphone Amplifier

Hybrid Headphone Amplifier Circuit Diagram. Potentially, headphone listening can be technically superior since room reflections are eliminated and the intimate contact between transducer and ear mean that only tiny amounts of power are required. The small power requirement means that transducers can be operated at a small fraction of their full excursion capabilities thus reducing THD and other non-linear distortions. This design of a dedicated headphones amplifier is potentially controversial in that it has unity voltage gain and employs valves and transistors in the same design. Normal headphones have an impedance of 32R per channel. The usual standard line output of 775 mV to which all quality equipment aspires will generate a power of U2 / R = 0.7752 / 32 = 18 mW per channel across a headphone of this impedance. 

An examination of available headphones at well known high street emporiums revealed that the sensitivity varied from 96 dB to 103db/mW! So, in practice the circuit will only require unity gain to reach deafening levels. As a unity gain design is required it is quite possible to employ a low distortion output stage. The obvious choice is an emitter follower. This has nearly unity gain combined with a large amount of local feedback. Unfortunately the output impedance of an emitter follower is dependent upon the source impedance. With a volume control, or even with different signal sources this will vary and could produce small but audible changes in sound quality. 

To prevent this, the output stage is driven by a cathode follower,based around an ECC82 valve (US equivalent: 12AU7).

This device, as opposed to a transistor configuration, enables the output stage to be driven with a constant value, low impedance. In other words, the signal from the low impedance point is used to drive the high impedance of the output stage, a situation which promotes low overall THD. At the modest output powers required of the circuit, the only sensible choice is a Class A circuit. In this case the much vaunted single-ended output stage is employed and that comprises of T3 and constant current source T1-T2.
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Hybrid Headphone Amplifier Circuit Diagram

Hybrid Headphone Amplifier Circuit Diagram
 
Hybrid Headphone Amplifier Circuit Diagram

The constant current is set by the Vbe voltage of T1 applied across R5 With its value of 22R, the current is set at 27 mA. T3 is used in the emitter follower mode with high input impedance and low output impedance. Indeed the main problem of using a valve at low voltages is that it’s fairly difficult to get any real current drain. In order to prevent distortion the output stage shouldn’t be allowed to load the valve. This is down to the choice of output device. A BC517 is used for T3 because of its high current gain, 30,000 at 2 mA! Since we have a low impedance output stage, the load may be capacitively coupled via C4. Some purists may baulk at the idea of using an electrolytic for this job but he fact remains that distortion generated by capacitive coupling is at least two orders of magnitude lower than transformer coupling. 

The rest of the circuitry is used to condition the various voltages used by the circuit. In order to obtain a linear output the valve grid needs to be biased at half the supply voltage. This is the function of the voltage divider R4 and R2. Input signals are coupled into the circuit via C1 and R1. R1, connected between the voltage divider and V1’s grid defines the input impedance of the circuit. C1 has sufficiently large a value to ensure response down to 2 Hz. Although the circuit does a good job of rejecting line noise on its own due to the high impedance of V1’s anode and T3’s collector current, it needs a little help to obtain a silent background in the absence of signal. 

The ‘help’ is in the form of the capacitance multiplier circuit built around T5. Another BC517 is used here to avoid loading of the filter comprising R7 and C5. In principle the capacitance of C5 is multiplied by the gain of T5. In practice the smooth dc applied to T5’s base appears at low impedance at its emitter. An important added advantage is that the supply voltage is applied slowly on powering up. This is of course due to the time taken to fully charge C5 via R7. No trace of hum or ripple can be seen here on the ‘scope. C2 is used to ensure stability at RF. The DC supply is also used to run the valve heater. The ECC82 has an advantage here in that its heater can be connected for operate from 12.6 V. To run it T4 is used as a series pass element. Base voltage is obtained from the emitter of T5. T4 has very low output impedance, about 160 mR and this helps to prevent extraneous signals being picked up from the heater wiring. Connecting the transistor base to C5 also lets the valve heater warm up gently. A couple of volts only are lost across T4 and although the device runs warm it doesn’t require a heat-sink.

Author: Jeff Macaulay - Copyright: Elektor Electronics
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Intelligent Electronic Lock

This intelligent electronic lock circuit is built using transistors only. To open this electronic lock, one has to press tactile switches S1 through S4 sequentially. For deception you may annotate these switches with different numbers on the control panel/keypad. For example, if you want to use ten switches on the keypad marked ‘0’ through ‘9’, use any four arbitrary numbers out of these for switches S1 through S4, and the remaining six numbers may be annotated on the leftover six switches, which may be wired in parallel to disable switch S6 (shown in the figure). When four password digits in ‘0’ through ‘9’ are mixed with the remaining six digits connected across disable switch terminals, energisation of relay RL1 by unauthorised person is prevented.

Intelligent Electronic Lock circuit diagramFor authorised persons, a 4-digit password number is easy to remember. To energise relay RL1, one has to press switches S1 through S4 sequentially within six seconds, making sure that each of the switch is kept depressed for a duration of 0.75 second to 1.25 seconds. The relay will not operate if ‘on’ time duration of each tactile switch (S1 through S4) is less than 0.75 second or more than 1.25 seconds. This would amount to rejection of the code. A special feature of this circuit is that pressing of any switch wired across disable switch (S6) will lead to disabling of the whole electronic lock circuit for about one minute.

Even if one enters the correct 4-digit password number within one minute after a ‘disable’ operation, relay RL1 won’t get energised. So if any unauthorised person keeps trying different permutations of numbers in quick successions for energisation of relay RL1, he is not likely to succeed. To that extent, this electronic lock circuit is fool-proof. This electronic lock circuit comprises disabling, sequential switching, and relay latch-up sections. The disabling section comprises zener diode ZD5 and transistors T1 and T2. Its function is to cut off positive supply to sequential switching and relay latch-up sections for one minute when disable switch S6 (or any other switch shunted across its terminal) is momentarily pressed.

During idle state, capacitor C1 is in discharged condition and the voltage across it is less than 4.7 volts. Thus zener diode ZD5 and transistor T1 are in non-conduction state. As a result, the collector voltage of transistor T1 is sufficiently high to forward bias transistor T2. Consequently, +12V is extended to sequential switching and relay latch-up sections. When disable switch is momentarily depressed, capacitor C1 charges up through resistor R1 and the voltage available across C1 becomes greater than 4.7 volts. Thus zener diode ZD5 and transistor T1 start conducting and the collector voltage of transistor T1 is pulled low. As a result, transistor T2 stops conducting and thus cuts off positive supply voltage to sequential switching and relay latch-up sections.

Thereafter, capacitor C1 starts discharging slowly through zener diode D1 and transistor T1. It takes approximately one minute to discharge to a sufficiently low level to cut-off transistor T1, and switch on transistor T2, for resuming supply to sequential switching and relay latch-up sections; and until then the circuit does not accept any code. The sequential switching section comprises transistors T3 through T5, zener diodes ZD1 through ZD3, tactile switches S1 through S4, and timing capacitors C2 through C4. In this three-stage electronic switch, the three transistors are connected in series to extend positive voltage available at the emitter of transistor T2 to the relay latch-up circuit for energising relay RL1.

When tactile switches S1 through S3 are activated, timing capacitors C2, C3, and C4 are charged through resistors R3, R5, and R7, respectively. Timing capacitor C2 is discharged through resistor R4, zener diode ZD1, and transistor T3; timing capacitor C3 through resistor R6, zener diode ZD2, and transistor T4; and timing capacitor C4 through zener diode ZD3 and transistor T5 only. The individual timing capacitors are chosen in such a way that the time taken to discharge capacitor C2 below 4.7 volts is 6 seconds, 3 seconds for C3, and 1.5 seconds for C4. Thus while activating tactile switches S1 through S3 sequentially, transistor T3 will be in conduction for 6 seconds, transistor T4 for 3 seconds, and transistor T5 for 1.5 seconds.

The positive voltage from the emitter of transistor T2 is extended to tactile switch S4 only for 1.5 seconds. Thus one has to activate S4 tactile switch within 1.5 seconds to energise relay RL1. The minimum time required to keep switch S4 depressed is around 1 second. For sequential switching transistors T3 through T5, the minimum time for which the corresponding switches (S1 through S3) are to be kept depressed is 0.75 seconds to 1.25 seconds. If one operates these switches for less than 0.75 seconds, timing capacitors C2 through C4 may not get charged sufficiently. As a consequence, these capacitors will discharge earlier and any one of transistors T3 through T5 may fail to conduct before activating tactile switch S4.

Thus sequential switching of the three transistors will not be achieved and hence it will not be possible to energise relay RL1 in such a situation. A similar situation arises if one keeps each of the mentioned tactile switches de-pressed for more than 1.5 seconds. When the total time taken to activate switches S1 through S4 is greater than six seconds, transistor T3 stops conducting due to time lapse. Sequential switching is thus not achieved and it is not possible to energise relay RL1. The latch-up relay circuit is built around transistors T6 through T8, zener diode ZD4, and capacitor C5. In idle state, with relay RL1 in de-energised condition, capacitor C5 is in discharged condition and zener diode ZD4 and transistors T7, T8, and T6 in non-conduction state.

However, on correct operation of sequential switches S1 through S4, capacitor C5 is charged through resistor R9 and the voltage across it rises above 4.7 volts. Now zener diode ZD4 as well as transistors T7, T8, and T6 start conducting and relay RL1 is energised. Due to conduction of transistor T6, capacitor C5 remains in charged condition and the relay is in continuously energised condition. Now if you activate reset switch S5 momentarily, capacitor C5 is immediately discharged through resistor R8 and the voltage across it falls below 4.7 volts. Thus zener diode ZD4 and transistors T7, T8, and T6 stop conducting again and relay RL1 de-energises. 


Sourced by : Extreamcircuits
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Simple Remote Control Mains Switch

As the only electronics engineer in my  =family and circle of friends, it is some-times not possible to evade an appeal for help. This time the request came from a friendly elderly lady in a retirement home. In her room the light switch by the door  and the pull cord above the bed operate the light fitting on the ceiling in the middle of the room. However, she would prefer that her standing lamp was operated  by these switches instead, since she does not actually have a light fitting mounted  on the ceiling. This standing lamp has an  on/of f switch in the power cord and is  plugged into a power point. However, it  stands rather far from the bed so that she  always has to find her way in the dark. A  wireless operated power point is not really  a consideration, because it is just a matter of time before the remote is lost. Or maybe not? 

Circuit Diagram :

Behold a feasible circuit. Buy a wireless power point and an enclosure that is big enough for the remote control and a small piece of prototyping board. On the proto-typing board build the circuit according to the accompanying schematic and (care-fully) open the remote control and solder wires to the push buttons for ‘on’ and ‘off’.  Measure if these are polarised and if that is  the case connect them to the 4N25 opto-couplers as shown in the schematic, where  pin 5 has a higher voltage than pin 4. 

The operation is as follows. The lady operates the pull cord or light switch to turn the light on. This causes the mains voltage to be applied to the transformer. The relay is activated which charges C1. While C1 charges, a small current flows through optocoupler 1. The result is that the ‘on’ button on the remote control is pressed.  The remote control switches the corresponding power point on and to which the  standing lamp is connected. The standing  lamp will therefore now turn on. Capacitor C2 is charged at the same time. If the lady pulls the cord again, or if she operates the  switch near the door, the relay will de-energise and C2 discharges across optocoupler  #2. This operates the ‘off’ contact of the  remote control and the light goes out. 

The remote control continuous to operate from its normal battery and the white enclosure is attached to the ceiling in place of the light fitting. Diode D1 ensures that C1 is discharged when the relay de-energises. D2 ensures that C2 cannot discharge across the relay, but only across optocoupler 2.




Author : Jaap van der Graaff - Copyright :Elektor

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Simple LM3410 LED Driver

The LM3410 IC is a constant current LED driver useful in either boost con-verter or SEPIC design applications. A SEPIC (Single Ended Primary Induct-ance Conver ter) design allows the power supply’s output voltage to be set above, below or equal to its input voltage. In this application the chip is configured as a boost-converter (i.e. the output voltage is greater than the input voltage). 

LM3410 LED Driver Circuit Diagram
Simple LM3410 LED Driver
The LM3410 is available in two fixed-frequency variants. Using either the 525 kHz or 1.6 MHz clock version it is possi-ble to build a ver y compact LED driver. The output stage can supply up to 2.8 A, allowing several high-power LEDs to be driven from a rechargeable Lithium cell or several 1.5 V bat-teries. The chip also features a dimmer input giving simple PWM brightness control.Output current is defined by an external shunt resistor. To keep losses low the LM3410 uses an internal voltage reference of just 190 mV.
Power dissipation in the shunt resistor is therefore low. Using the desired value of LED current the value and power dissipation of the shunt resistor is given by:

R_Shunt = 0.19 V/I_LED
P_Shunt = 0.19 V*I_LED 

A 10 µH coil (L1) will be suf ficient for most applications providing it has a suitable satu-ration current rating. The Input and output capacitors should be 10 µF ceramic t ypes with a low value of E SR . Many distributor s including Farnell stock these component s. The Diode should beaSchottky type (as in all switching regulators). The author has developed a PCB for this design; the corresponding Eagle files can be freely downloaded from www.elektor.com/090850. In sum-mar y the most important features of the LM3410 are:
  • Integrated 2.8 A MOSFET driver.
  • Input voltage range from 2.7 V to 5.5 V.
  • Capability to drive up to six series connected LEDs (maximum output 24 V).
  • Up to 88 % efficiency.
  • Available is 525 kHz and 1.6 MHz versions.
  • Allows both boost and SEPIC designs.
  • Available in 5 pin SOT23 or 6 pin LLP outline.
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Scheme RF Attenuator Circuit Diagram

The RF attenuator is used to attenuate an RF signal that can be output from a generator, transmitter or receiver. This RF attenuator can be used without problems at a frequency of up to hundreds of MHz The key must be of good quality and with low inductance resistors. Table 1 shows the values ​​of the resistors impedance attenuator with 50 and 75 ohms. read full via

Scheme RF Attenuator Circuit Diagram

Scheme RF Attenuator Circuit Diagram
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Soldering Iron Tip Preserver

Although 60/40 solder melts at about 200&degC, the tip temperature of a soldering iron should be at about 370&degC. This is necessary to make a good quick joint, without the risk of overheating delicate components because the iron has to be kept on the joint for too long. Unfortunately, at this temperature, the tip oxidises rapidly and needs constant cleaning. Thats where this circuit can help - it keeps the soldering tip to just below 200&degC while the iron is at rest. Oxidisation is then negligible and the iron can be brought back up to soldering temperature in just a few seconds when needed. In addition, normal soldering operation, where the iron is returned to rest only momentarily, is unaffected because of the thermal inertia of the iron. Two 555 timers (IC1 & IC2) form the heart of the circuit. 

Circuit diagram:
soldering-iron-tip-preserver circuit diagram
Soldering Iron Tip Preserver Circuit Diagram

IC1 is wired as a monostable and provides an initial warm-up time of about 45 seconds to bring the iron up to temperature. At the end of this period, its pin 3 output switches high and IC2 (which is wired in astable configuration) switches the iron on - via relay RLY1 - for about one second in six to maintain the standby temperature. The presence of the iron in its stand is sensed by electrical contact between the two and some slight modification of the stand may be necessary to achieve this. When the iron is at rest, Q1s base is pulled low and so Q1 is off. Conversely, when the iron is out of its stand, Q1 turns on and pulls pins 2 & 6 of IC2 high, to inhibit its operation. During this time, pin 3 of IC2 is low and so the iron is continuously powered via RLY1s normally closed (NC) contacts. Note that the particular soldering iron that the circuit was designed for has its own 24V supply transformer. Other irons may need different power supply arrangements. The warm-up time and standby temperature can be varied by altering R2 and R5, as necessary.


Author: Alan March - Copyright: Silicon Chip Electronics
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In Circuit Transistor Checker

This simple circuit has helped me out on many occasions. It is able to check transistors, in the circuit, down to 40 ohms across the collector-base or base-emitter junctions. It can also check the output power transistors on amplifier circuits. Circuit operation is as follows. The 555 timer ( IC1 ) is set up as a 12hz multi vibrator. The output on pin 3 drives the 4027 flip-flop ( IC2). This flip-flop divides the input frequency by two and delivers complementary voltage outputs to pin 15 and 14. The outputs are connected to LED1 and LED2 through the current limiting resistor R3.

Circuit Diagram

In Circuit Transistor Checker Circuit DiagramThe LEDs are arranged so that when the polarity across the circuit is one way only one LED will light and when the polarity reverses the other LED will light, therefore when no transistor is connected to the tester the LEDs will alternately flash. The IC2 outputs are also connected to resistors R4 and R5 with the junction of these two resistors connected to the base of the transistor being tested. With a good transistor connected to the tester, the transistor will turn on and produce a short across the LED pair. If a good NPN transistor is connected then LED1 will flash by itself and if a good PNP transistor is connected then LED2 will flash by itself. If the transistor is open both LEDs will flash and if the transistor is shorted then neither LED will flash.
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Solid State Switch For Dc Operated Gadgets

This solid state DC switch can be assembled using just three transistors and some passive components. It can be used to switch on one gadget while switching off the second gadget with momentary operation of switch. To reverse the operation, you just have to momentarily depress another switch. 

The circuit operates over 6V-15V DC supply voltage. It uses positive feedback from transistor T2 to transistor T1 to keep this transistor pair in latched state (on/ off), while the state of the third transistor stage is the complement of transistor T2’s conduction state. 

Initially when switch S3 is closed, both transistors T1 and T2 are off, as no forward bias is available to these, while the base of transistor T3 is effectively grounded via resistors R8 and R6 (shunted by the load of the first gadget). As a result, transistor T3 is forward biased and gadget 2 gets the supply. This is indicated by glowing of LED2. 

Circuit diagram :
Solid-State Switch For Dc-Operated Gadgets-Circuit Diagram
Solid-State Switch For Dc-Operated Gadgets Circuit Diagram

When switch S1 is momentarily depressed, T1 gets the base drive and it grounds the base of transistor T2 via resistor R4. Hence transistor T2 (pnp) also conducts. The positive voltage available at the collector of transistor T2 is fed back to the base of transistor T1 via resistor R3. Hence a latch is formed and transistor T2 (as also transistor T1) continues to conduct, which activates gadget 1 and LED1 glows. 

Conduction of transistor T2 causes its collector to be pulled towards positive rail. Since the collector of T2 is connected to the base of pnp transistor T3, it causes transistor T3 to cut off, switching off the supply to gadget 2) as well as extinguishing LED2. This status is maintained until switch S2 is momentarily pressed. Depression of switch S2 effectively grounds the base of transistor T1, which cuts off and thus virtually opens the base-emitter circuit of transistor T2 and thus cutting it off. This is the same condition as was obtained initially. This condition can be reversed by momentarily pressing switch S1 as explained earlier. 

EFY lab note. During testing, it was noticed that for proper operation of the circuit, gadget 1 must draw a current of more than 100 mA (i.e. the resistance of gadget 1 must be less than 220 ohms) to sustain the latched ‘on’ state. But this stipulation is not applicable for gadget 2. A maximum current of 275 mA could be drawn by any gadget.



Author : Praveen Shanker - Copyright : EFY
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Build a Relay Switch Activated by Tone and Signal

The essence of the circuit is for the input of tone and signal to provide an activation for the relay switch.
  • Relay – an electrically operated switch where the current flowing through the coil of the relay is creating a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts, thereby making its state open or close
  • BC214 – a complementary silicon planar epitaxial transistor used in AF small signal drivers and am1 as well as for low noise preamplifier applications due to its feature of good linearity of DC current gain
  • LM741 – a general purpose single operational amplifier with features such as offset null, compensated internal freq uency, voltage range with high input, good stability of temperature, and protected from short circuit
The use of relay will allow the circuit to switch from one condition to another. It can also be referred to as a form of an electrical amplifier since it is able to control an output circuit of higher power than the input circuit. There are many types of relays being used in many electronic and electrical circuits, which include solid-state relay, Buchholz relay, overload protection relay, latching relay, forced-guided contacts relay, mercury-wetted relay, contactor relay, machine tool relay, reed relay, polarized relay, and solid state contactor relay.
 
Build a Relay Switch Activated by Tone and Signal
 
The circuit created is sensitive enough to the AC signals in the input stage, where the signals are ranging above 5 mV. It will also be sensitive to react with the human voice signals having a range of frequency from 50 Hz up to 3 KHz. The human voice is a part of the human sound produced primarily by the vocal cords or vocal folds which in turn produces a voice frequency that is used for the transmission of speech.

During the absence of an input signal, the state of the 12 V relay RL1 is at OFF condition as regulated by the 10K Ohms trimmer RV1. The circuit can be made to react with its sensitivity in points A, B, & C, where a negative feedback can be placed due to the addition of band pass filter. The filter will operate only in the 1 KHz range and the circuit will only correspond at this frequency.
Relay Switch Activated by Tone and Signal

The signal and tone activated relay switch were used in a wide range of fields which includes measuring instruments, audio systems, communications equipment, and factory-automation equipment. They can also be found on telephone subscriber circuits for the polarity reversing switch, testing, and ringing functions. Source
 
 
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Temperature Detector For Fan Controller

The fan controller circuit for the Titan 2000 and other AF heavy-duty power amplifiers, has an output that sets a voltage if the fan controller reaches the end of its range. Since the controller responds to temperature, this signal is seen by the amplifier protection circuitry as an over temperature indication. The disadvantage of this output is that the maximum voltage for the fans is not constant, but depends on the load (number of fans, defective fans) and the mains voltage. This variation is caused by the fact that the supply voltage for the output stage is taken directly from the filtered transformer voltage.

Maximum Temprature Detector For Fan ControllerIf the fans should fail, for example, the maximum temperature limit would lie at a considerably higher level than the desired value. The accompanying circuit, which compares the magnitude of the fan voltage to a fixed reference value, has been developed to allow the maximum temperature to be reliably detected. This circuit is tailored for 12-V fans. The reference voltage is generated by the ‘micro power voltage reference’ D1 and the FET T1, which is wired as a current source. These components are powered directly from the applied fan voltage. The current source is set up to deliver approximately 50µA.

D1 can work with as little as 10µA. The supply voltage for the IC is decoupled by R10, C3 and C4, with D4 providing over voltage protection. A maximum supply voltage of 16 V is specified for the TLC271. This opamp works with a supply voltage as low as 3 V and can handle a common-mode voltage up to approximately 1.5 V less than the positive supply voltage. Accordingly, 1.2 V has been chosen for the reference voltage. The fan voltage is reduced to the level of the reference voltage by the voltage divider R2–R3–P1. The limits now lie at 11.2 V and 16.7V.

If you find these values too high, you can reduce R2 to 100 kΩ, which will shift the limits to 9.5 V and 14.2 V. The output of the voltage divider is well decoupled by C2. A relatively large time constant was selected here to prevent the circuit from reacting too quickly, and to hold the output active for a bit longer after the comparator switches states. A small amount of hysteresis (around 1 mV) is added by R4 and R5, to prevent instability when the comparator switches. D2 ensures that the magnitude of the hysteresis is independent of the supply voltage. Two outputs have been provided to make the circuit more versatile.

Output ‘R’ is intended to directly drive the LED of an optocoupler. In addition, transistor T2 is switched on by the output of the opamp via R7 and R8, so that a relay can be actuated or a protection circuit triggered using the ‘T’ output. The high-efficiency LED D3 indicates that IC1 has switched. It can be used as a new ‘maximum’ temperature’ indicator when this circuit is added to the fan controller. The circuit draws only 0.25 mA when the LED is out, and the measured no-load current consumption (with a 12.5V supply voltage) is 2.7 mA when the LED is on.

Resistors:
  • R1 = 22kΩ
  • R2 = 120kΩ
  • R3 = 10kΩ
  • R4,R6 = 1kΩ
  • R5 = 1MΩ
  • R7,R8 = 47kΩ
  • R9 = 3kΩ9
  • R10 = 100Ω
  • P1 = 5kΩ preset
Capacitors:
  • C1,C3 = 100nF
  • C2 = 100µF 25V radial
  • C4 = 47µF 25V radial
Semiconductors:
  • D1 = LM385-1.2
  • D2 = BAT85
  • D3 = high-efficiency-LED
  • D4 = zener diode 16V/1W3
  • T1 = BF245A
  • T2 = BC547B
  • IC1 = TLC271CP
Miscellaneous:
  • K1 = 2-way PCB terminal block, raster 5mm
  • K2 = 3- way PCB terminal block, raster 5mm
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Using LED as a diode Rectifier Circuit Diagram

This is a simple LED as a diode Rectifier Circuit Diagram. In certain situations where the current is not high, we can use the famous LED (LED) and diode rectifier voltage power circuits. The LED can be used without problem in a rectification circuit, and also works in the power ratings. Pay attention not to exceed the maximum current of the LED in a wave rectifier.


 Using LED as a diode Rectifier Circuit Diagram

Using LED as a diode Rectifier Circuit Diagram

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Simple Universal PIC Programmer

This simple programmer will accept any device thats supported by software (eg, IC-Prog 1.05 by Bonny Gijzen at www.ic-prog.com). The circuit is based in part on the ISP header described in the SILICON CHIP "PIC Testbed" project but also features an external programming voltage supply for laptops and for other situations where the voltage present on the RS232 port is insufficient. This is done using 3-terminal regulators REG1 & REG2. The PIC to be programmed can be mounted on a protoboard. This makes complex socket wiring to support multiple devices unnecessary. 16F84A, 12C509, 16C765 and other devices have all been used successfully with this device.

Circuit diagram:



Simple Universal PIC Programmer Circuit Diagram




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Timer Hack

Normally, the timer clocks we find in stores have to be plugged in to the electrical current to work. It becomes very difficult when you require something that works on batteries The best solution is to build yourself one. It is easy to turn an electrically operated timer into a battery operated timer.

Hacks and Mods: Timer Hack
 
First of all, the timer has to be disassembled. This is pretty simple. All that is needed is to remove the screws that hold the back cover in place. The timer will then split. It must be separated carefully to avoid any damage on the screen or inner controls.

Once it is disassembled, the original PCB should be removed completely, in order to gain access to the full back cover. Now the space is free, the only thing available is a totally useful space that comprises of the plastic marks and walls used to set and hold the original PCB.
Hacks and Mods: Timer Hack
 
The plastic features can be removed by using a Dremel tool. It is highly recommended that some kind of mask or protection for eyes, nose and mouth should be used while using the Dremel tool because it produces some dust.

After clearing the space completely, it is time to add the new connections for the battery. All that is needed is a AA battery holder, which can be acquired at any electronics store, and the proper connections to feed the battery power to the timer.
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Simple Over Current Indicator

This circuit eventually surfaced while pondering over the design of a current indicator for a small power supply. Fortunately, it proved possible to employ the supply voltage as a reference by dividing it down with the aid of R1 and R2. C1 is an essential capacitor to suppress noise and surges. The half supply voltage level is applied to the non-inverting pin of opamp IC1. The value of the R3 determines the trip level of the indicator, according to

R3 = 0.4 × (desired voltage drop) / I trip

Actually this is high side sensing but the method can be used as low side sensing, too! The desired voltage or sense voltage can be any value between 0.35 V and 0.47 V. If currents greater than about 1A are envisaged, you should not forget to calculate R3’s dissipation on penalty of smoke & smells.

Another voltage divider network, R4, R5 and P1 divide the voltage between supply voltage and desired oltage. This divided voltage, filtered by C2, is fed to the inverting input of IC1 to compare levels. The result causes D1 to light or remain off. Turn P1 to the end of R4 to hold off D1. Then connect a load causing over current and adjust P1 towards the end of R5 until D1 lights. The accuracy of the circuit depends entirely on the tolerances of the resistors used - high stability types are recommended.
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