Friday, October 24, 2014

Selector Antennas using PIN Diodes Circuit Diagram

This Selector Antennas using PIN Diodes Circuit Diagram selector antennas uses PIN diodes, was designed using common components and is very useful when used various external antennas, this antenna selector uses PIN diodes that eliminate disadvantages of mechanical switches especially at high frequency. 

Capacitors C1 to C4 and C9 are used to prevent the input and output circuit DC. Shock L1 to L5 prevent leakage of HF signal.Shock L1 to L5 can be wound on a ferrite core, using enameled copper wire of 0.3 mm in diameter, two rounds will suffice for entries for VHF and UHF 5 (1 mH is required for VHF and UHF about 5 uH). The circuit was designed for antenna input impedance of 50 or 75 ohms.

Selector Antennas using PIN Diodes Circuit Diagram

Selector Antennas using PIN Diodes Circuit Diagram

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Selector Antennas using PIN Diodes Circuit Diagram

This Selector Antennas using PIN Diodes Circuit Diagram selector antennas uses PIN diodes, was designed using common components and is very useful when used various external antennas, this antenna selector uses PIN diodes that eliminate disadvantages of mechanical switches especially at high frequency. 

Capacitors C1 to C4 and C9 are used to prevent the input and output circuit DC. Shock L1 to L5 prevent leakage of HF signal.Shock L1 to L5 can be wound on a ferrite core, using enameled copper wire of 0.3 mm in diameter, two rounds will suffice for entries for VHF and UHF 5 (1 mH is required for VHF and UHF about 5 uH). The circuit was designed for antenna input impedance of 50 or 75 ohms.

Selector Antennas using PIN Diodes Circuit Diagram

Selector Antennas using PIN Diodes Circuit Diagram

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Low drop Regulator with Indicator Circuit Diagram

Even today much logic is still powered from 5 volts and it then seems obvious to power the circuit using a standard regulator from a rectangular 9-V battery. A disadvantage of this approach is that the capacity of a 9-V battery is rather low and the price is rather high. Even the NiMH revolution, which has resulted in considerably higher capacities of (pen-light) batteries, seems to have escaped the 9-V battery generation. It would be cheaper if 5 volts could be derived from 6 volts, for example. That would be 4 ‘normal’ cells or 5 NiMH- cells. Also the ‘old fashioned’ sealed lead- acid battery would be appropriate, or two lithium cells.
Circuit diagram : 
Low-drop Regulator with Indicator-Circuit-Diagram
Low-drop Regulator with Indicator Circuit Diagram
Using an LP2951, such a power supply is easily realised. The LP2951 is an ever- green from National Semiconductor, which you will have encountered in numerous  Elektor Electronics designs already. This IC can deliver a maximum current of 100 mA at an input voltage of greater than 5.4 V. In addition to this particular version, there are also versions available for 3.3 and 3 V output, as well as an adjustable version.  In this design we have added a battery indicator, which also protects the battery from too deep a discharge. As soon as the IC has a problem with too low an input voltage, the ERROR output will go low and the regulator is turned off via IC2d, until a manual restart is provided with the RESET pushbutton.
The battery voltage is divided with a few resistors and compared with the reference voltage (1.23 V) of the regulator IC. To adapt the indicator for different voltages you only need to change the 100-k resistor. The comparator is an LP339. This is an energy-friendly version of the LM339. The LP339 consumes only 60 µA and can sink 30 mA at its output. You can also use the LM339, if you happen to have one around, but the current consumption in that case is 14 times higher (which, for that matter, is still less than 1 mA).
Finally, the LP2951 in the idle state, consumes about 100 µA and depend- ing on the output current to be deliv- ered, a little more. 

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TV Video Transmitter Circuit Diagram

This circuit is a video transmitter that has many uses, such as video cameras, security cameras, satellite receivers, DVD, Video Games, etc. .. The circuit transmits 470-580MHz and can be tuned in the UHF channels 21-34. The video transmitter can reach up to 300 meters in open field using a wire antenna of 10-20 cm.
TV Video Transmitter Circuit Diagram

TV Video Transmitter Circuit Diagram

Video Transmitter

Transmitter can work with a voltage from 9 to 15 volts. However, you can also use a 9v battery. Oscillator is based around BF199 and BFR90 is the RF transistors. If necessary, the transmission power can be increased by replacing with BFR90 transistor 2N3886.
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Lambda Probe Readout For Carburetor Tuning

A lambda probe (or oxygen sensor) can be found on the exhaust system of most cars running on unleaded fuel. Having reached its normal operating temperature (of about 600 degrees Celsius!) the lambda probe supplies an output voltage proportional to the amount of residual oxygen measured in the exhaust gas.

This information is indicative of, among others, the air/fuel ratio supplied by the carburetor(s) and hence the combustion efficiency. In modern car (and motorcycle) engines, this information is used to (electronically) adjust engine parameters like ignition timing and fuel injection. The indicator described here is intended for permanent installation on a motorcycle of which the air/fuel ratio needed to be watched, with the obvious aim engine power tuning after fitting a different set of carburetors. Apart from this obvious technical use the unit’s bright LEDs will no doubt attract the attention of curious motorcyclists.

Lambda Probe Readout For Carburettor Tuning

At the local junkyard a single-wire lambda probe may be salvaged from a wrecked car. Once a suitable nut has been found, the probe can screwed into the exhaust pipe of the motorcycle, at about 30 cm from the cylinders.  Since we’re talking of welding and drilling in an expensive (chrome-plated) exhaust pipe, you may find that actually fitting the probe is best left to specialists!  The starting point for the design of a suitable electronic indicator is that in the noble art of carburetor tuning an air/fuel ratio of 14.7 to 1 is generally considered ‘perfect’, the range covering 16.2 to 1 (‘lean’) to 11.7 to 1 (‘rich’). The perfect ratio typically corresponds to a probe output voltage of 0.45 V. 

 Referring to the circuit diagram, that is the input level at which 5 of the 10 LEDs will light, including the green one, D5. If one of the red LEDs lights, the mixture is definitely too rich. Note that in general it is better to have a mixture that is a little to rich than one that’s on the lean side, hence a yellow LED lights between the green LED and the first red one. Also note that the engine needs to be at its normal operating temperature before a meaningful indication is obtained.

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5 Watt Class A Audio Amplifier Circuit diagram

This solid-state push-pull single-ended Class A circuit is capable of providing a sound comparable to those valve amplifiers, delivering more output power (6.9W measured across a 8 Ohm loudspeaker cabinet load), less THD, higher input sensitivity and better linearity. Voltage and current required for this circuit are 24V and 700mA respectively, compared to 250V HT rail and 1A @ 6.3V filament heating for valve-operated amplifiers. The only penalty for the transistor operated circuit is the necessity of using a rather large Heatsink for Q2 and Q3 (compared to the maximum power delivered).In any case, the amount of heat generated by this circuit can be comparable to that of a one-valve amplifier. An optional bass-boost facility can be added, by means of R5 and C5.

 Circuit diagram:

5 Watt Class-A Audio Amplifier Circuit Diagram


P1 = 47K
R1 = 100K
R2 = 12K
R3 = 47K
R4 = 8.2K
R5 = 1.5K
R6 = 2.7K
R7 = 100R
R8 = 100R
R9 = 560R-1/2W
R10 = 1R-1/2W
Q1 = BC560
Q2 = BD439
Q3 = BD439
C1 = 10uF-63V
C2 = 10uF-63V
C3 = 47uF-25V
C4 = 100uF-35V
C5 = 150nF-63V
C6 = 220uF-25V
C7 = 220uF-25V
C8 = 1000uF-25V
SPKR = 5W-8R Speaker

  • If necessary, R2 can be adjusted to obtain 13V across C8 positive lead and negative ground.
  • Total current drawing of the circuit, best measured by inserting the probes of an Avo-meter across the positive output of the power supply and the positive rail input of the amplifier, must be 700mA. Adjust R8 to obtain this value if necessary.
  • Q2 and Q3 must be mounted on a finned Heatsink of 120x50x25mm. Minimum dimensions.
  • Add R5 and C5 if the bass-boost facility is required.
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Portable 230v Lamp Flasher

Here is a portable, high-power incandescent electric lamp flasher. It is basically a dual flasher (alternating blinker) that can handle two separate 230V AC loads (bulbs L1 and L2). The circuit is fully transistorised and battery-powered. The free-running oscillator circuit is realised using two low-power, low-noise transistors T1 and T2. One of the two transistors is always conducting, while the other is blocking.

Circuit diagram :
Portable 230v Iamp Flasher-Circuit-Diagram
 Portable 230v Lamp Flasher Circuit Diagram

Due to regular charging and discharging of capacitors C1 and C2, the two transistors alternate between conduction and non-conduction states. The collector of transistor T1 is connected to the base of driver transistor T4 through current-limiting resistor R5. Similarly, the collector of transistor T2 is connected to the base of driver transistor T3 through limiting resistor R6. These transistors are used to trigger Triac1 and Triac2 (each BT136) through optotriacs IC1 and IC2, respectively, and switch on the power supply to external loads L1 and L2.
IC1 and IC2 operate alternatively at a low frequency determined by the values of capacitors C1 and C2. The oscillator circuit built around transistors T1 and T2 generates low frequencies. When transistor T3 conducts, IC1 is enabled to ire Triac1 and bulb L1 glows. Similarly, when transistor T4 conducts, IC2 is enabled to ire Triac2 and bulb L2 glows. Connect the power supply line (L) of mains to bulbs L1 and L2, and neutral (N) to T1 terminals of Triac1 and Triac2.
You can also connect neutral (N) line of the external 230V mains supply to both loads (bulbs L1 and L2) as a common line and then route supply line (L) to respective loads (bulbs L1 and L2). The circuit works off only 3 volts. Since current consumption is fairly low, two AA-type cells are suficient to power the circuit. Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable plastic cabinet with integrated AA-size pen-light cell holder. Drill holes for mounting the ‘on’/‘off’ switch and power switching terminals. Also connect two bulb holders for bulbs L1 and L2.
Portable 230v Iamp Flasher

The circuit works off only 3 volts. Since current consumption is fairly low, two AA-type cells are sufficient to power the circuit. Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable plastic cabinet with integrated  AA-size penlight cell holder. Drill holes for mounting the ‘on’/‘off’ switch and  power switching terminals. Also connect two bulb holders for bulbs L1 and L2. Refer Fig. 2 for pin configurations.
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Simple Proportional Temperature Controller Circuit Diagram

This temperature controller operates as a pulse snatching device, which allows it to run at its own speed and tum on at the zero crossing of the line frequency. Zero crossing tum-on reduces the generation of line noise transients. TMOS Power FET, Ql, is used to tum on a heater. Temperature sensor D6 provides a de voltage proportional to temperature that is applied to voltage-tofrequency converter Ul. Output from Ul is a pulse train proportional to temperature offset that is applied to the input of triac optoisolator U2. 

The anode supply for the triac is a 28 V pk-pk, full-wave rectified sine wave. The optoisolator ORs the pulse train from Ul with the zeroTrossing of U2`s anode supply, supplying a gate tum on signal for Ql. Therefore, TMOS power FET Ql can only tum the heater on at the zero crossing of the applied sine wave. The maximum temperature, limited by the sensor and the insulation of the wire, is 130°C for the components shown. 
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Simple Zener Tester Schematic

The circuit can be simply Q1 is connected as a current source. By D1, there is a constant voltage on the base, and it is worth considering the selected resistor in the emitter approximately 5.6 V. With an emitter resistor of 5K6 R2 will then 1mA through the transistor.

With the chosen resistors in the circuit the current is approximately: 1mA, 2mA, 5mA, 10mA and 20mA. Great precision is not required.

If meter is chosen here for a small DVM module. However, every other meter is applicable, provided that the input resistance is high enough.

The circuit is simple to build on a piece of PCB holes. Note that the DVM module separate from the circuit galvanic isolated power supply needs.

Connect the test zener diode between the terminal A and K. Start with a current of 2mA. This is a safe value for most type zener diodes. Depending on the type of zener diode, may be chosen for a greater current. Than the Zener voltage will vary slightly.

Join the zener diode on backwards, the meter will indicate approximately 0.7V. The same picture shows an ordinary silicon diode. A germanium diode, a voltage of about 0.3 V to 0.4 V indicate when a Schottky approximately 0.2 V indicates.

Connect an LED to A and K, it will be highlighted and the Vforward (LED voltage) of the LED indicate.
The diode / LED failure, the meter displays zero if the voltage at the collector of Q1 is, this is> 25V.

parts List

     Bridge rectifier BR1 = 40V 500mA
     R1 = 3k3 ¼ W
     R2 = 5K6 ¼ W
     R3 = 2k7 ¼ W
     R4 = 1k ¼ W
     R5 = 560 ohm W ½
     R6 = 270 ohm ½ W
     C1 = 470µF 35V
     D1 = 6V2 zener 400mW
     Q1 = BC161-16
     S1 = on / off switch
     S2 = 5 modes 1 mom ignition switch
     ENG = The diode under test (Device Under Test)
     DVM DVM = module of BACO or Dick Best (input adapted to 200V)
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Automatic Battery Charger

Normally, chargers available in the market do not have any sort of control except for a ro-tary switch that can select different tap-pings on a rheostat, to vary the charging current. This type of control is not adequate because of the irregular fluctuations in the mains supply, rendering the control ineffective.  A simple circuit intended for automatic charging of lead-acid batteries is presented here. It is flexible enough to be used for large capacity inverter batteries. Only the rating of transformer and power transistor needs to be increased.

Circuit diagram :
Automatic Battery Charger Circuit Diagram
Automatic Battery Charger Circuit Diagram
The circuit has been basically designed for a car battery (about 40 Ah rating), which could be used for lighting two 40W tube lights. The circuit includes Schmitt trigger relay driver,float charger,and battery voltage monitor sections.  The Schmitt trigger is incorporated to avoid relay chattering. It is designed for a window of about 1V. During charging, when the battery voltage increases be-yond 13.64V, the relay cuts off and the float charging section continues to work. When battery voltage goes below 11.66V, the relay is turned on and direct (fast) charging of the battery takes place at around 3A.  In the Schmitt trigger circuit, resistors R1 and R2 are used as a simple voltage divider (divide-by-2) to provide battery voltage sample to the inverting input terminal of IC1. The non-invert-ing input terminal of IC1 is used for reference input derived from the output of IC2 (7806), using the potentiometer arrangement of resistors R3 (18 kilo-ohm) and R4 (1 kilo-ohm). 

LED1 is connected across relay to indicate fast charging mode. Diodes D3 and D6 in the common leads of IC2 and IC3 respectively provide added protecion to the regulators.  The float charging section, comprising regulator 7812, transistors T3 and T4, and few other discrete components, becomes active when the battery volt-age goes above 13.64V (such that the relay RL1 is deenergised). In the energised state of the relay, the emitter and collector of transistor T4 remain shorted, and hence the float charger is ineffective and direct charging of battery takes place. 

The reference terminal of regulator (IC3) is kept at 3.9V using LED2, LED3, and diode D6 in the common lead of IC3 to obtain the required regulated output (15.9V), in excess of its rated output, which is needed for proper operation of the circuit. This output voltage is fed to the base of transistor T3 (BC548), which along with transistor T4 (2N3055) forms a Darlington pair. You get 14.5V output at the emitter of transistor T4, but because of a drop in diode D7 you effectively get 13.8V at the positive terminal of the battery. When Schmitt trigger switches ‘on’ relay RL1, charging is at high current rate (boost mode). The fast charging path, starting from transformer X2, comprises diode D5, N/O contacts of relay RL1, and diode D7. 

The circuit built around IC4 and IC5 is the voltage monitoring section that provides visual display of battery voltage level in bar graph like fashion. Regulator 7805 is used for generating reference voltage. Preset VR1 (20 kilo-ohm) can be used to adjust voltage levels as indicated in the circuit. Here also a pot meter arrangement using resistors R7, R8, and R9 is used as ‘divide by 3’ circuit to sample the battery voltage. When voltage is below 10V, the buzzer sounds to indicate that the safe dis-charge limit has been exceeded.

Author : Yash Deep - Copyright : EFY Mag
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Test Multiteste LEDs Polarity Continuity Resistance Circuit

What do you think of building a simple LED tester, so you can test the integrity of the components before soldering directly to the PCB. It reduces the task of testing the meter components using the circuit with LED gives an indication about the good or bad condition of the component.

Test Multiteste LEDs - Polarity - Continuity - Resistance Circuit

Test Multiteste LEDs - Polarity - Continuity - Resistance Circuit

When a component is placed in the circuit and establishes electrical continuity T1 receives base current through R1. When T1 conducts, the green LED turns on and off the red LED. This indicates that the component to be tested is good. If the component is bad, will not have electrical continuity and T1 remains off. In this state only the red LED light indicating that the component is bad.

Connect the red end of the positive range to the circuit board and to test the black edge point. Circuit board under test to be lit
Green LED ON - positive feed. Green LED off and red LED - or no negative supply voltage.

Connect both ends red and black throughout the test points
Green LED-Continuity. LED red if there is no continuity
Resistor. 1 ohm to 500K

Alloy ends red and black on each side of resistor
Green LED Resistor-OK. Green LED off and red LED Resistor burned
Electrolytic capacitor

Red probe tip to positive and black for negative capacitor.
Green LED turns on and off gradually and then red lights, Capacitor good. Red LED lights up steadily bad capacitor

LED diodes, photodiodes, infrared diodes

The Red pontaa probe anode and cathode Black
Green LED - LED Good and Green LED off and red LED diode, or LED bad
Change the direction of the tips. If the green LED diode or LED is open


Tips in red and black leads of the LDR
Under the light, green LED and red LED fading. covering the LDR with your hand. Green LED off LDR good
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Sound Activated Lights

This diy sound activated lights circuit turns a lamp ON for a short duration when the dog barks (or a relatively strong sound) giving an impression that the occupants have been alerted. The condenser microphone fitted in a place to monitor sound and generates AC signals, which pass through DC blocking capacitor C1 to the base of transistor BC549 (T1). Transistor T1 along with transistor T2 amplifies the sound signals and provides current pulses from the collector of T2. When sound is produced in front of the condenser mic, triac1 (BT136) fires, activates lights and the bulb (B1) glows for about two minutes.
Assemble the sound activated lights circuit on a general purpose PCB (circuit board) and enclose in a plastic cabinet. Power to the sound activated switch circuit can be derived from a 12V, 500mA step-down transformer with rectifier and smoothing capacitor. Solder the triac ensuring sufficient spacing between the pins to avoid short circuit. Fix the unit in the dog’s cage or close to the sound monitoring spot, with the lamp inside or outside as desired. Connect the microphone to the sount activated lights circuit using a short length of shielded wire. Enclose the microphone in a tube to increase its sensitivity.

Caution. Since the sound activated lights uses 230V AC, many of its points are at AC mains voltage. It could give you lethal shock if you are not careful. So if you don’t know much about working with line voltages, do not attempt to construct this circuit. We will not be responsible for any kind of resulting loss or damage.
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Simple 555 Tester Circuit Diagram

Simple 555 Tester Circuit Diagram

This is a Simple 555 Tester Circuit Diagram. The IC 555 is a widely used timers, control circuits, PWM, alarms, etc.. Often we set up a circuit that does not work or works differently than expected, this time the ideal is a test circuit for this IC. 

This test circuit 555 is connected as an astable multivibrator when the button switch S1 is pressed, the LEDs D1 and D2 flash alternately. Ie, when the output is high D2 will light when the output is low D3 will light, and the other a Hi Lo. The speed of flashes is determined by the components R1, R2 and C1.Pressing the S1 test the 555 starts and any change in the IC flashes may consider to be defective.

Simple 555 Tester Circuit Diagram

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Simple 50 to 300 MHz Colpitts Oscillator

Simple high efficiency Colpitts oscillator .In the higher frequency ranges, above 50 MHz, Colpitts oscillators are used because stray circuit capacitance will be in parallel with desired feedback capacitance and not cause undesirable spurious resonances that might occur with the tapped coil Hartley design.

50 to 300 MHz Colpitts Oscillator

The FM VCO shown is a grounded base design with feedback from collector to emitter. A Colpitts oscillator is one of a number of designs for electronic oscillator circuits using the combination of an inductance with a capacitor for frequency determination.As you can see in the circuit diagram , this electronic project require few electronic parts an provide a 50 MHz-300MHz VCO with a tuning range of 2:1 . link
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Thursday, October 23, 2014

10 000x With One Transistor

For a collector follower with emitter resistor, you’ll often find that the gain per stage is no more than 10 to 50 times. The gain increases when the emitter resistor is omitted. Unfortunately, the distortion also increases. With a ubiquitous transistor such as the BC547B, the gain of the transistor is roughly equal to 40 times the collector current (Ic), provided the collector current is less than a few milliamps. This value is in theory equal to the expression q/KT, where q is the charge of the electron, K is Boltzmann’s constant and T is the temperature in Kelvin.

For simplicity, and assuming room temperature, we round this value to 40. For a single stage amplifier circuit with grounded emitter it holds that the gain Uout /Uin (for AC voltage) is in theory equal to SRc. As we observed before, the slope S is about 40Ic. From this follows that the gain is approximately equal to 40I cRc. What does this mean? In the first instance this leads to a very practical rule of thumb: that gain of a grounded emitter circuit amounts to 40·I c·Rc, which is equal to 40 times the voltage across the collector resistor.

If Ub is, for example, equal to 12 V and the collector is set to 5V, then we know, irrespective of the values of the resistors that the gain will be about 40R(12–5) = 280. Notable is the fact that in this way the gain can be very high in theory, by selecting a high power supply voltage. Such a voltage could be obtained from an isolating transformer from the mains. An isolating transformer can be made by connecting the secondaries of two transformers together, which results in a galvanically isolated mains voltage.

Circuit diagram:
10,000x With One Transistor Circuit diagram

That means, that with a mains voltage of 240 Veff there will be about 340 V DC after rectification and filtering. If in the amplifier circuit the power supply voltage is now 340 V and the collector voltage is 2 V, then the gain is in theory equal to 40 x (340–2). This is more than 13,500 times! However, there are a few drawbacks in practice. This is related to the output characteristic of the transistor. In practice, it turns out that the transistor does actually have an output resistor between collector and emitter.

This output resistance exists as a transistor parameter and is called ‘hoe’. In normal designs this parameter is of no consequence because it has no noticeable effect if the collector resistor is not large. When powering the amplifier from 340 V and setting the collector current to 1 mA, the collector resistor will have a value of 338 k. Whether the ‘hoe’-parameter has any influence depends in the type of transistor. We also note that with such high gains, the base-collector capacitance in particular will start to play a role.

As a consequence the input frequency may not be too high. For a higher bandwidth we will have to use a transistor with small Cbc, such as a BF494 or perhaps even an SHF transistor such as a BFR91A. We will have to adjust the value of the base resistor to the new hfe. The author has carried out measurements with a BC547B at a power supply voltage of 30 V. A value of 2 V was chosen for the collector voltage. Measurements confirm the rule of thumb. The gain was more than 1,000 times and the effects of ‘hoe’ and the base-collector capacitance were not noticeable because of the now much smaller collector resistor.
Author: Gert Baars
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How to Create Link XLamp XM LED

The XM-Lamp LED can be regarded as the highest performance LED, solid state single LED that is capable of producing ultra-bright light intensities. These LEDs offer a unique combination of high efficiency, it is able to efficiently provide 1000 lumens 100 lumens per watt at 3, 5 mm x 5 mm. The circuit described here can be used for applications in residential lighting and automotive LEDs should be mounted on suitable heat sinks for optimal performance. For more information on this, you can consult the datasheet in the link below.

Create Link XLamp XM-LED Circuit Diagram

Create Link XLamp XM-LED

Size (mm x mm) 5 x 5
Maximum unit current (A) 3
Maximum power (W) 10
Light output Up to 1040 lm 10 W @
Typical forward voltage (V) 3.1
Viewing angle (degrees) 125
ANSI binning
Thermal Resistance (° C / W) 2.5
Yes Reflow-solderable - JEDEC J-STD-020C-compatible
RoHS and REACH-compliant Yes
UL recognized component Yes - Level 4 Cash Consideration

Datasheet Download Led Cree XLamp XM-LED

Under a connection pattern of three Xlamp Cree XM-LED can be used as lighting in vehicles.
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12 V AC Dimmer

The circuit described here is derived from a conventional design for a simple lamp dimmer, as you can see if you imagine a diac connected between points A and B. The difference between this circuit and a normal diac circuit is that a diac circuit won’t work at 12 V. This is the fault of the diac. Most diacs have a trigger voltage in the range of 30 to 40V, so they can’t work at 12 V, which means the dimmer also can’t work.

Circuit diagram :

12-V AC Dimmer Circuit Diagram

The portion of the circuit between points A and B acts like a diac with a trigger voltage of approximately 5.5 V. The network formed by R1, P1 and C1 generates a phase shift relative to the supply voltage. The ‘diac equivalent’ circuit outputs a phase-shifted trigger pulse to the triac on each positive and negative half-cycle of the sinusoidal AC voltage.

This works as follows. First consider the positive half of the sine wave. C1 charges when the voltage starts to rise, with a time constant determined by C1, R1 and P1. T1 does not start conducting right away. It waits until the voltage across D2 reaches 4.7 V and the Zener diode starts to conduct. Then current starts to flow, driving T1 and T3 into conduction. This produces a pulse at point B. The same principle applies to the negative half of the sine wave, in this case with D1, T2 and T4 as the key players.

The trigger angle can be adjusted with P1 over a range of approximately 15 degrees to 90 degrees. C2 provides a certain amount of noise decoupling. Depending on the load, the triac may need a heat sink. You can use practically any desired transistors; the types indicated here are only examples. If the circuit does not dim far enough, you can change the value of P1 to 25 kΩ. This allows the trigger angle to be increased to 135 degrees.

Note: this circuit works fine with normal transformers, but not with ‘electronic ’ transformers.
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Power On Indicator

Some types of electronic equipment do  not provide any indication that they are  actually on when they are switched on.  This situation can occur when the back-light of a display is switched off. In addition, the otherwise mandatory mains  power  indicator  is  not  required  with  equipment  that  consumes  less  than  10 watts. As a result, you can easily forget  to switch off such equipment. If you want  to know whether equipment is still drawing power from the mains, or if you want  to have an indication that the equipment  is switched on without having to modify the equipment, this circuit provides a solution. 


One way to detect AC power current and  generate a reasonably constant voltage  independent of the load is to connect a  string of diodes wired in reverse parallel in series with one of the AC supply  leads. Here we selected diodes rated  at 6 A that can handle a non-repetitive  peak current of 200 A. The peak current  rating is important in connection with  switch-on  currents.  An  advantage  of  the selected diodes is that their voltage  drop increases at high currents (to 1.2 V  at 6 A). This means that you can roughly  estimate the power consumption from  the brightness of the LED (at very low  power levels). The voltage across the diodes serves as  the supply voltage for the LED driver. To  increase the sensitivity of the circuit, a  cascade circuit (voltage doubler) consisting of C1, D7, D8 and C2 is used to double  the voltage from D1–D6. Another benefit  of this arrangement is that both halve- waves of the AC current are used. We use  Schottky diodes in the cascade circuit to  minimise the voltage losses. 

Power On Indicator-Circuit-Diagram
Power On Indicator Circuit Diagram

The LED driver is designed to operate the LED  in blinking mode. This increases the amount  of current that can flow though the LED when  it is on, so the brightness is adequate even  with small loads. We chose a duty cycle of pproximately 5 seconds off and 0.5 second  on. If we assume a current of 2 mA for good  brightness with a low-current LED and we can  tolerate a 1-V drop in the supply voltage, the  smoothing capacitor (C2) must have a value of  1000 µF. We use an astable multivibrator built around two transistors to implement a  high-efficiency LED flasher. It is dimensioned to minimise the drive current of  the transistors. The average current consumption is approximately 0.5 mA with a  supply voltage of 3 V (2.7 mA when the  LED is on; 0.2 mA when it is off). C4 and  R4 determine the on time of the LED (0.5  to 0.6 s, depending on the supply volt-age). The LED off time is determined by  C3 and R3 and is slightly less than 5 seconds. The theoretical value is R × C × ln2,  but the actual value differs slightly due to  the low supply voltage and the selected  component values.
Diodes D1-D6 do not have to be special  high-voltage diodes; the reverse volt-age is only a couple of volts here due  the reverse-parallel arrangement. This  voltage drop is negligible compared to  the value of the mains voltage. The only  thing you have to pay attention to is the  maximum load. Diodes with a higher  current rating must be used above 1 kW.  In addition, the diodes may require cool-ing at such high power levels.  Measurements on D1–D6 indicate that  the voltage drop across each diode is  approximately 0.4 V at a current of 1 mA.  Our aim was to have the circuit give a  reasonable indication at current levels  of 1 mA and higher, and we succeeded  nicely. However, it is essential to use a  good low-current LED.
Caution: the entire circuit is at AC power potential. Never work on the circuit with the mains cable plugged in. The  best enclosure for the circuit is a small,  translucent box with the same colour as  the LED. Use reliable strain reliefs for the  mains cables entering and leaving the  box (connected to a junction box, for  example). The LED insulation does not  meet the requirements of any defined insulation class, so it must be fitted such that it  cannot be touched, which means it cannot  protrude from the enclosure.
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Doorbell Warning Switch

This circuit will light a lamp at a remote location when the doorbell switch is pressed. This circuit should only be used with the solenoid type doorbells, the electronic type that play tunes will not work here.  It is quite easy to miss the sound of a doorbell if you are watching TV , this circuit gets round the problem by providing a visual indication. As an alternative, a LED could also be used. You could just parallel a lamp across the doorbell, but this would mean extra drain from the doorbell batteries or transformer.
Circuit Project: Doorbell Warning Switch
A series resistor, R1 is wired in series with the doorbell and reduces current flow, thereby increasing battery life. The value of R1 is chosen so that about 0.6 to 0.7 volts is developed across it, when the doorbell switch is pressed. I used a combination of a 22 ohm resistor in parallel with a 50 ohm. The voltage drop across R1 is sufficient to switch on the transistor, the lamp in series with the collector will then illuminate. I also used an electromechanical counter in parallel with the lamp.
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Simple Emergency Light

This is an automatic emergency lamp with day light sensing, means it senses darkness/night and turns ON automatically. Similarly it senses day light and turns OFF automatically. A simple emergency lamp which does not require any special equipment; even a multimeter to assemble and use. Any individual who can do a good quality soldering must be able to build this circuit successfully.

This can be easily accommodated in the defunct two 6 watt tube National Emergency Lamp or any PL tube type emergency lamp. The difference will be in the working; it will work non stop for more than 8 hours.deep discharge is taken care by the LED characteristic and over charge protection is taken care by the fixed voltage regulator.This uses a simple 3Pin fixed regulator which has a built in current limiting circuit.

Simple Emergency Light Circuit Diagram:

Circuit Project: Simple Emergency Light Circuit

The only required adjustment is the preset which has to be set to ensure the LEDs just light up (it should be left at that position). The 5mm LDR is just mounted on top of the emergency light as shown in the photograph. LDR is used to avoid it lighting up during day time or when the room lights are ON. 2 LEDs are used in series; the dropping resistance is avoided and 2 LEDs light up with current that is required for a single LED,  by which energy is saved to a great extent.

This particular circuit has been kept so simple for people who has limited access to components or in other words this is an emergency light that you can build with minimum components. In addition to circuit diagram, He has shared photographs of the prototype he made in National emergency light and a PCB design.
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Digital Mains Voltage Indicator

Continuous monitoring of the mains voltage is required in many ap-plications such as manual volt-age stabilisers and motor pumps. An ana-logue voltmeter, though cheap, has many disadvantages as it has moving parts and is sensitive to vibrations. The solidstate voltmeter circuit described here indicates the mains voltage with a resolution that is comparable to that of a general-pur-pose analogue voltmeter. The status of the mains voltage is available in the form of an LED bar graph. Presets VR1 through VR16 are used to set the DC voltages corresponding to the 16 voltage levels over the 50-250V range as marked on LED1 through LED16, respectively, in the figure. The LED bar graph is multiplexed from the bottom to the top with the help of ICs CD4067B (16-channel multiplexer) and CD4029B (counter). The counter clocked by NE555 timer-based astable multivibrator generates 4-bit binary ad-dress for multiplexer-demultiplexer pair of CD4067B and CD4514B. 

Circuit diagram:
Digital Mains Voltage Indicator Circuit Daigram
Digital Mains Voltage Indicator Circuit Diagram

The voltage from the wipers of pre-sets are multiplexed by CD4067B and the output from pin 1 of CD4067B is fed to the non-inverting input of comparator A2 (half of op-amp LM358) after being buff-ered by A1 (the other half of IC2). The unregulated voltage sensed from rectifier output is fed to the inverting input of com-parator A2. The output of comparator A2 is low until the sensed voltage is greater than the reference input applied at the non-inverting pins of comparator A2 via buffer A1. When the sensed voltage goes below the reference voltage, the output of com-parator A2 goes high. The high output from comparator A2 inhibits the decoder (CD4514) that is used to decode the out-put of IC4029 and drive the LEDs. This ensures that the LEDs of the bar graph are ‘on’ up to the sensed voltage-level pro-portional to the mains voltage.
The initial adjustment of each of the presets can be done by feeding a known AC voltage through an auto-transform and then adjusting the corresponding pre-set to ensure that only those LEDs that are up to the applied voltage glow. 

EFY note.  It is advisable to use ad-ditional transformer, rectifier, filter, and regulator arrangements for obtaining a regulated supply for the functioning of the circuit so that performance of the cir-cuit is not affected even when the mains voltage falls as low as 50V or goes as high as 280V. During Lab testing regu-lated 12-volt supply for circuit operation was used.)

Author : Pratap Chandra Sahu - Copyright : EFY
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Super mbed Microcontroller Prototyping

The mbed micro-controller 40 pin was developed for prototyping the mbed compiler lets you write programs in C + +, and then compile and download them to run on the micro-controller. The mbed compiler is a Web App in the cloud, you do not have to install or configure anything to wear. Compatible with any operating system and any place, the software is online and ready to be used, you will only need a computer or netbook with an Internet connection.

Super mbed Microcontroller Prototyping

Super mbed Microcontroller Prototyping

Super mbed Microcontroller Prototyping
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Vocal Adaptor for Bass Guitar Amp

These days, music is a major hobby for the young and not-so-young. Lots of people  enjoy  making  music,  and  more  and  more dream of showing off their talents on stage. But one of the major problems often encountered is the cost of musical equipment. How many amateur music groups sing  through an amp borrowed from a guitarist or bass player? 

This is where the technical problems arise not in terms of the .25” (6.3 mm)  jack, but in terms of the sound quality (the words  are barely understandable) and volume (the amp  seems to produce fewer decibels than for a guitar). What’s more, unpredictable feedback may cause damage to the speakers and is very unpleasant on the ear. This cheap little  easy-to-build project can help solve these technical  problems. 

Circuit diagram :
Vocal Adaptor for Bass-Guitar Amp-Circuit Diagram
Vocal Adaptor for Bass Guitar Amp Circuit Diagram
A guitar (or bass guitar) amplifier is designed first and foremost to reproduce the sound of the guitar or bass as faithfully as  possible. The frequency response of the amp doesn’t need to be as wide or as flat as in hi-fi (particularly at the high end), and so this sort of amplifier won’t permit faithful reproduction of the voice. If you build an adaptor to compensate for the amp’s limited frequency response by amplifying in advance the frequencies that are  then attenuated by the amp, it’s possible to  improve the quality of the vocal sound. That’s  just what this circuit attempts to do. 

The adaptor is built around the TL072CN low-noise dual FET op-amp, which offers good value for money. The NE5532 can be used with almost the same sound quality, but at (slightly) higher cost. The circuit breaks  down into two stages. The first stage is used to match the input impedance and amplify the microphone signal. For a small 15 W guitar or bass amplifier, the achievable gain is  about 100 (gain = P1/R1). For more powerful amplifiers, the gain can be reduced to  around 50 by adjusting P1. The second stage amplifies the band of frequencies (adjustable using P2 and P3) that are attenuated by the guitar amp, so as to be able to reproduce the (lead)  singer ’s voice as clearly, distinctly, and  accurately as possible. To refine the adaptor and tailor it to your amplifier and speaker, don’t be afraid to experiment with the component values and the type  of capacitors. 

The circuit can readily be powered using a 9 V battery, thanks to the voltage divider R4/R5 which converts it into a symmetrical  ±4.5 V supply.
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High Power LEDs up to 15 Amperes Circuit Diagram

This High Power LEDs up to 15 Amperes Circuit Diagram employs a simple scheme that limits the current flow to the LED, you can easily modify the circuit, and can change the power just replacing the value of R2. You can use a DC source of any tensions between 9V to 15V.Para powers or other LEDs just use the approximate formula:

Current (I) = 0.8/R2 where I is the current specified by the LED manufacturer. Value of I this conductor is 10A. Use R2 = 0.8/Current formula (I) to determine R2.

High Power LEDs up to 15 Amperes Circuit Diagram

High Power LEDs up to 15 Amperes Circuit Diagram

Parts List

Q1 2N3055 or similar NPN transistor
R1 1W 220ohms
D1, D2 1N4001 silicon diode or rectifier

See R2 power for each LED

R2 for 1W LED 1W 2.7ohms
R2 LED to 1.5 ohms 1W 3W
5W LED R2 to 0.6 ohms or 2 x parallel 1.2-ohms/1W
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New Automatic Load Sensing Power Switch

This circuit will automatically switch on several mains-powered "slave" loads when a "master" load is turned on. For example, it will switch on the amplifier and CD player in a stereo system when the receiver is turned on. It works by sensing the current draw of the "master" device through a low value high wattage resistor using a comparator. The output of that comparator then switches on the "slave" relay. The circuit can be built into a power bar, extension cord or power center to provide a convenient set of "smart" outlets that switch on when the master appliance is powered (turn on the computer monitor and the computer, printer and other peripherals come on as well).



  Total Qty.


C1, C3               2               10uF 35V Electrolytic Capacitor
C2     1               1uF 35V Electrolytic Capacitor
R1     1               0.1 Ohm 10W Resistor
R2     1               27K 1/2W Resistor
R3, R4     1               1K 1/4W Resistor
R5     1               470K 1/4W Resistor
R6     1               4.7K 1/2W Resistor
R7     1               10K 1/4W Resistor
D1, D2, D4     3               1N4004 Rectifier Diode
D3     1               1N4744 15V 1 Watt Zener Diode
U1     1               LM358N Dual Op Amp IC
Q1     1               2N3904 NPN Transistor
K1     1               Relay, 12VDC Coil, 120VAC 10A Contacts
S1     1               SPST Switch 120AVC, 10A
MISC     1               Board, Wire, Socket For U1, Case, Mains Plug, Socket
  • This circuit is designed for 120V operation. For 240V operation, resistors R2 and R6 will need to be changed.
  • A maximum of 5A can be used as the master unless the wattage of R1 is increased         S1 provides a manual bypass switch.
  • THis circuit is not isolated from the mains supply. Because of this, you must exercise extreme caution when working around the circuit if it is plugged in.
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Simple Radiator Temperature Iindicator

This radiator temperature indicator can be designed using electronic circuit diagram bellow .Temperature indicator consists of two special zener diode, D1 and D2, connected in series to ensure accuracy of 5.96 V Zener voltage at 25 ° C. As long as the radiator temperature not exceeding 50 ° C, thermal indicator will flash a green LED, one orange will be provided for temperatures of 50 ... 75 ° C and a red LED, for temperatures above 75 ° C.

Zener voltage will increase by 20 mV for each temperature increase of a degree Celsius temperature. Radiator temperature corresponding voltage level is compared with two reference voltages, IC1 and IC2 using. When the temperature reaches 50 ° C, IC2s output goes to logic state "1" so that T3 leads and following ignition with diode D4. At 75 ° C, IC1s output is in logic state "1" and, therefore, T2 and T3 will, so that D3 and D4 lights are off. Link
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Simple Alkaline Cell Charger Circuit Diagram

This is the Simple Alkaline Cell Charger Circuit Diagram. This charger works as two channel current limited voltage source 1.6 V. Low charge current allows charging deep discharged cells (0.7 - 0.8 V) and non-rechargeable cells. Charge current can be changed by R9 and R10. With 470 Ohm is approx 7 mA. LED1 and LED indicates when cell voltage reached 1.6 V and cell is fully charged. 

If power supply is disconnected, reverse discharging current is negligibly (less than 1 microA). For this feature is operational amplifier type LM324 recommended or similar type with p-n-p transistor on input. Non-rechargeable cells can be charged, but their capacity will be significantly less than rechargeable cells

Alkaline Cell Charger Circuit Diagram



Parts list

R1 2,2 kohm
R2 10 kohm
R3 2,7 kohm
R4 15 kohm
R5, R6 5,6 kohm
R7, R8 22 kohm (viz text) /
depend on R9, R10 (approx. 50 times greater than R9, R10)
R9, R10 470 ohm (see text) / change charge current
R11, R12 1 kohm (See text) / change LEDs current
R13 1 kohm, SMD1206
C1 100 nF, ceramic
D1, D2 1N4148 etc.
T1, T2 2SC945 etc.
IC1 TL431C
IC2 LM324
LED1 until LED3 Any LED 3 mm with low power consumption /
any low power 3 mm LEDs
  Housing Articles/ cell cases AA, AAA
  pcb bcs67 / PCB board see fig. 2
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Lighting Up Model Aircraft

This circuit provides aircraft modellers with extremely realistic beacon and marker lights at minimum  outlay. The project ’s Strobe out-put (A) provides four brief pulses repeated periodically for the wing  (white strobe) lights. In addition the Beacon output (B) gives a double pulse to drive a red LED for indicating the aircraft’s active operational status. On the proto-type this is usually a red rotating  beacon known as an Anti-Collision Light (ACL). The circuit is equally useful for road vehicle modellers, who can use it to flash headlights and blue emergency lights. 

Circuit diagram :
Lighting Up Model Aircraft-Circuit Diagram
Lighting Up Model Aircraft Circuit Diagram

All signals are generated by a 4060 14-stage binary counter and some minimal output selection logic. Cycle time is determined by the way the internal oscillator is con-figured (resistor and capacitor on pins 9/10) and can be varied within quite broad limits. High-efficiency LEDs are your first choice for the indicators connected to the Bea-con and Strobe outputs (remember to fit series resistors appropriate to the operating voltage Ub and the current specified for the LED used). 

The sample circuit is for operating voltages between 5 and 12 V. Cur- rent flow through the two BS170 FET devices must not exceed 500 mA.

Author : Werner Ludwig
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Monday, October 20, 2014

Ultra Bright LED Lamp

This ultra-bright white LED lamp works on 230V AC with minimal power consumption. It can be used to illuminate VU meters, SWR meters, etc. Ultra-bright LEDs available in the market cost Rs 8 to 15.These LEDs emit a 1000-6000mCd bright white light like welding arc and work on 3 volts, 10 mA. Their maximum voltage is 3.6 volts and the current is 25 mA. Anti-static precautions should be taken when handling the LEDs.
Circuit diagram :
Fig.1 The circuit of ultra Fig.1: Ultra-Bright LED Lamp Circuit Diagram
The LEDs in water-clear plastic package emit spotlight, while diffused type LEDs have a wide-angle radiation pattern. This circuit (Fig. 1) employs capacitive reactance for limiting the current flow through the LEDs on application of mains voltage to the circuit. If we use only a series resistor for limiting the current with mains operation, the limiting resistor itself will dissipate around 2 to 3 watts of power,whereas no power is dissipated in a capacitor. The value of capacitor is calculated by using the following relationships:
XC = 1/(2fC) ohms —————(a)
XC = VRMS /I ohms ———— (b)
where XC is capacitive reactance in ohms, C is capacitance in farads, I is the current through the LED in amperes, f is the mains frequency in Hz, and Vrms is the input mains voltage.
The 100-ohm, 2W series resistor avoids heavy ‘inrush’ current during transients. MOV at the input prevents surges or spikes, protecting the circuit. The 390-kilo-ohm,½-watt resistor acts as a bleeder to provide discharge path for capacitor Cx when mains supply is disconnected. The zener diode at the output section prevents excess reverse voltage levels appearing acrossthe LEDs during negative half cycles. During positive half cycle, the voltage across LEDs is limited to zener voltage.

Fig.2 Ciruit
Fig.2: 16-LED combination
The 100-ohm, 2W series resistor avoids heavy ‘inrush’ current during transients. MOV at the input prevents surges or spikes, protecting the circuit. The 390-kilo-ohm, ½-watt resistor acts as a bleeder to provide discharge path for capacitor Cx when mains supply is disconnected. The zener diode at the output section prevents excess reverse voltage levels appearing across the LEDs during negative half cycles. During positive half cycle, the voltage across LEDs is limited to zener voltage.
Fig.3 Ciruit Fig.3: 46-LED combination
Use AC capacitors for Cx. Filter capacitor C1 across the output provides flickerfree light. The circuit can be enclosed in a CFL round case, and thus it can be connected directly to AC bulb holder socket. A series combination of 16 LEDs (Fig. 2) gives a luminance (lux) equivalent of a 12W bulb. But if you have two series combinations of 23 LEDs in parallel (total 46 LEDs as shown in Fig. 3), it gives light equal to a 35W bulb. 15 LEDs are suitable for a table lamp light. Diode D1 (1N4007) and capacitor C1 act as rectifying and smoothing elements to provide DC voltage to the row of LEDs. For a 16-LED row,use Cx of 0.22 μF, 630V; C1 of 22 μF, 100V; and zener of 48V, 1W. Similarly, for 23+23 LED combination use Cx of 0.47 mF, 630V; C1 of 33 μF, 150V; and zener of 69V, 1W.

Author : N.S. Harisankar Vu3nsh – Copyright : EFY
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USB Power Booster

Power shortage problems arise when too many USB devices connected to PC are working simultaneously. All USB devices, such as scanners, modems, thermal printers, mice, USB hubs, external storage devices and other digital devices obtain their power from PC. Since a PC can only supply limited power to USB devices, external power may have to be added to keep all these power hungry devices happy. This circuit is designed to add more power to a USB cable line. A sealed 12V 750 mA unregulated wall cube is cheap and safe. To convert 12 V to 5 V, two types of regulators, switching and linear are available with their own advantages and drawbacks.

USB Power Booster circuit diagramThe switching regulator is more suitable to this circuit because of high efficiency and compactness and now most digital circuits are immune to voltage ripple developed during switching. The simple switcher type LM2575-5 is chosen to provide a stable 5V output voltage. This switcher is so simple it just needs three components: an inductor, a capacitor and a high-speed or fast-recovery diode. Its principle is that internal power transistor switch on and off according to a feedback signal. This chopped or switched voltage is converted to DC with a small amount of ripple by D1, L1 and C2. The LM2575 has an ON/OFF pin that is switched on by pulling it to ground.

T1, R2, and R1 (pull-up resistor) pull the ON/OFF pin to ground when power signal from PC or +5 V is received. D2, a red LED with current resistor R3, serves to indicate ‘good’ power condition or stable 5V. C3 is a high-frequency decoupling capacitor. The author managed to cut a USB cable in half without actually cutting data wires. It is advisable to look at the USB cable pin assignment for safety.

Circuit Source: DIY Electronics Projects
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Car Charger And Switcher Circuit For SLA Battery

This circuit was devised to switch power to a Peltier cooler in a vehicle. Power to the load from the vehicle’s battery is switched by a SPDT relay while the ignition switch is turned on and from the SLA auxiliary battery when the ignition is off.

The SLA battery is charged from the vehicle’s battery. When the engine is running, the voltage remains fairly constant, which greatly simplifies the charging circuit. If the SLA battery is fully charged, any further charging current from the vehicle battery is limited by a 3.3W 5W resistor (R1). If the SLA battery is deeply discharged, the voltage drop across this resistor will be enough to bias on PNP transistor Q1. This will turn on P-channel Mosfet Q2 and it will provide further charging current via R2, effectively becoming a 2-step charger.

Since the paralleled resistors (R1 & R2) have a lower combined voltage drop, Q1 will receive lower base bias, which in turn will cause Mosfet Q2 to fully saturate. This positive feedback creates a clean transition between the two states and prevents Q2 from over-dissipating by being partially on. The current then will ramp down until the battery is only receiving a trickle charge and the voltage drop across the paralleled resistors is only a few dozen millivolts. Schottky diode D1 prevents the SLA battery from discharging into the vehicle’s accessory circuits when the engine is off.

Two safety devices are included in the circuit, the first being in-line fuse F1 which will prevent serious damage in case of shorts. In addition, a PTC resettable thermistor (RT1) protects the battery from sustained over-currents during the charging phase. It is a 1.85A hold, 3.70A trip device at 23°C. Since it has a positive temperature coefficient, at 70°C, these ratings decrease to 1A and 2A for hold and trip respectively, which can further protect the battery.

Circuits Diagram

Lastly, to protect the SLA battery from deep discharge, a low voltage disconnect is included. This is centred around REG1, a voltage reference configured as a comparator. Its reference (REF) input is connected to a voltage divider, as long as "enable" switch S1 is closed.

Whenever the voltage at REG1’s reference terminal exceeds 2.5V, its anode will be pulled low, biasing on PNP transistor Q3. Q3 provides positive feedback via the 270kΩ resistor and diode D2 to turn on N-channel Mosfet Q4, which allows the load to be powered up.

If the SLA battery voltage drops below 10V, the reference terminal will fall below 2.5V and the anode of REG1 will go high, thereby removing bias from Q3 and turning off Q4 to disconnect the load and prevent deep discharge. LED1 indicates when power is being applied to the load.
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Reliable Car Battery Tester

This circuit uses the popular and easy to find LM3914 IC. This IC is very simple to drive, needs no voltage regulators (it has a built in voltage regulator) and can be powered from almost every source. This circuit is very easy to explain: When the test button is pressed, the Car battery voltage is feed into a high impedance voltage divider. His purpose is to divide 12V to 1,25V (or lower values to lower values).

This solution is better than letting the internal voltage regulator set the 12V sample voltage to be feed into the internal voltage divider simply because it cannot regulate 12V when the voltage drops lower (linear regulators only step down). Simply wiring with no adjust, the regulator provides stable 1,25V which is fed into the precision internal resistor cascade to generate sample voltages for the internal comparators. Anyway the default setting let you to measure voltages between 8 and 12V but you can measure even from 0V to 12V setting the offset trimmer to 0 (but i think that under 9 volt your car would not start).

There is a smoothing capacitor (4700uF 16V) it is used to adsorb EMF noise produced from the ignition coil if you are measuring the battery during the engine working. Diesel engines would not need it, but Im not sure. If you like more a point graph rather than a bar graph simply disconnect pin 9 on the IC (MODE) from power. The calculations are simple (default)

For the first comparator the voltage is : 0,833 V corresponding to 8 V
* * * * * voltage is : 0,875 V corresponding to 8,4 V
for the last comparator the voltage is : 1,25 V corresponding to 12 V
Have fun, learn and dont let you car battery discharge... ;-)
author: Jonathan Filippi

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Simple 300m FM Transmitter

This FM transmitter circuit is very simple and it has a acceptable transmission . The signal transited from this FM transmitter circuit can be received at almost 300 meters in open air .The circuit require a 3volts operating voltage and can be tuned anywhere in the FM band.The coil should be about 3mm in diameter and 5 turns. The wire is tinned copper wire, 0.61 mm in diameter.After the coil in soldered into place spread the coils apart about 0.5 to 1mm so that they are not touching.

If you don’t have a trim cap you can use a fixed value capacitor and you can vary the TX frequency by adjusting the spacing of the coils or placing a small piece of ferrite inside the coil , but the better way to change the transmission frequency is to use a variable capacitor .Connect a half or quarter wavelength antenna (length of wire) to the aerial point. At an FM frequency of 100 MHz these lengths are 150 cm and 75 cm respectively.
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Protection For Your Electrical Appliances

Here is a very low-cost circuit to save your electrically operated appliances, such as tv, tape recorder, refrigerator, and other instruments during sudden tripping and resumption of mains supply. Appliances like refrigerators and air-conditioners are more prone to damage due to such conditions. The simple circuit given here switches off the mains supply to the load as soon as the power trips. The supply can be resumed only by manual intervention. Thus, the supply may be switched on only after it has stabilised.
Circuit diagram :
Protection For Your Electrical Appliances Circuit Diagram
Protection For Your Electrical Appliances
The circuit comprises a step-down transformer followed by a full-wave rectifier and smoothing capacitor C1 which acts as a supply source for relay rl1. Initially, when the circuit is switched on, the power supply path to the step-down transformer X1 as well as the load is incomplete, as the relay is in de-energised state. To energise the relay, press switch S1 for a short duration. This completes the path for the supply to transformer X1 as also the load via closed contacts of switch S1. Meanwhile, the supply to relay becomes available and it gets energised to provide a parallel path for the supply to the transformer as well as the load.

If there is any interruption in the power supply, the supply to the transformer is not available and the relay de-energises. Thus, once the supply is interrupted even for a brief period, the relay is de-energised and you have to press switch S1 momentarily (when the supply resumes) to make it available to the load. Very short duration (say, 1 to 5 milliseconds) interruptions or fluctuations will not affect the circuit because of presence of large value capacitor which has to discharge via the relay coil. Thus the circuit provides suitable safety against erratic power supply conditions.
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110 and 220V AC LED Voltage Indicator

Useful for power lines control, Simple, transformerless circuitry
This circuit, designed on request, has proven to be useful to indicate when the voltage in a power supply line is changing from 120V to 240Vac. It can be used in different circumstances and circuits, mainly when an increase in ac or dc supply voltage needs to be detected. D3 illuminates when the line voltage is approaching 120V and will remain in the on state also at 240V supply. On the other hand, D6 will illuminate only when the line voltage is about 240V and will stay on because the latching action of Q1, Q2 and related components. C1, D1 and D2 provide a low dc voltage in the 4.5V - 6V range in order to allow proper operation of latch circuit and LEDs.

Circuit diagram:
110-220vac-voltage- indicator
110 and 220V AC LED Voltage Indicator Circuit Diagram
R1__________470R 1/2W Resistor
R2__________220K 1/4W Resistor
R3,R7_______470R 1/4W Resistors
R4__________1K 1/4W Resistor
R5__________2K2 1/4W Resistor
R6_________330R 1/4W Resistor
C1_________330nF 630V Polyester Capacitor
C2_________10µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
D1,D2______N4007 1000V 1A Diode
D3,D6______LEDs (Color and shape at will)
D4_________BZX79C10 10V 500mW Zener Diode (See Notes)
D5_________1N4148 75V 150mA Diode
Q1_________BC547 45V 100mA NPN Transistor
Q2_________BC557 45V 100mA PNP Transistor

  • D4 value could require some adjustment in order to allow precise switching of the circuit at the chosen voltage. If the case, please try values in the 8.2V - 15V range.
  • Warning! The circuit is connected to 240Vac mains, then some parts in the circuit board are subjected to lethal potential! Avoid touching the circuit when plugged and enclose it in a plastic box.
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Build a FM Booster Circuit Diagram

A low-cost circuit of an FM booster that can be used to listen programs from distant FM stations clearly. The circuit comprises a common-emitter tuned RF preamplifier wired around VHF/UHF transistor 2SC2570 ( C2570). this FM booster circuit is constructed using few common components( not require some special components ) and provide a very good gain .to calibrate this circuit you need to adjust input/output trimmers (VC1/VC2) for maximum gain.

 FM Booster C/ ircuit Diagram

 Input coil L1 consists of four turns of 20SWG enamelled copper wire (slightly space wound) over 5mm diameter former. It is tapped at the first turn from ground lead side. Coil L2 is similar to L1, but has only three turns. Both of the trimmers are 22pF value. This FM radio signal booster needs to be powered by a 12 volts DC power supply .
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